Serbian (српски / srpski) is the standardized variety of the
Serbo-Croatian language , a Slavic language
(Southeast Europe), of the South Slavic group, mainly used by Serbs.
It is the official language of Serbia, and one of the three official languages of Bosnia and Herzegovina.
In addition, it is a recognized minority language in Montenegro where it is spoken by the relative majority of the population.
Standard Serbian is based on the most widespread dialect of Serbo-Croatian, Shtokavian (more specifically on Šumadija-Vojvodina and Eastern Herzegovinian dialects), which is also the basis of Standard Croatian, Bosnian, and Montenegrin.
Serbian is practically the only European standard language whose speakers are fully functionally digraphic, using both Cyrillic and Latin alphabets.
The Serbian Cyrillic alphabet was devised in 1814 by Serbian linguist Vuk Karadžić, who created the alphabet on phonemic principles.
The Bosnian language (bosanski / босански) is a South Slavic language, the standardized variety of Serbo-Croatian mainly used by Bosniaks.
Bosnian is one of three such varieties considered official languages of Bosnia and Herzegovina, along with Croatian and Serbian - ijekavski. Bosnian uses both alphabets - Latin and Cyrillic, with Latin in everyday use.
Republik of Srpska, the Serb-dominated entity in Bosnia and Herzegovina use mainly alphabet Cyrilic.
The Croatian language ( hrvatski) is a South Slavic language and is the official and literary standard language of Croatia.
It is also one of the official languages of Bosnia-Herzegovina.
The majority of Croatians speak – and understand – standard Croatian, which can also very easily be understood by Bosnians, Serbians and Montenegrins.
Besides the Shtokavian dialect, on which Standard Croatian is based, there are two other main dialects, Chakavian and Kajkavian.
Croatian is written in Latin alphabet
Montenegrin ( црногорски / crnogorski) is a South Slavic language and the standardized variety of the Serbo-Croatian language used as the official language of Montenegro. Standard Montenegrin is based on the most widespread dialect of Serbo-Croatian, Shtokavian, more specifically on Eastern Herzegovinian, which is also the basis of Standard Croatian, Serbian, and Bosnian.
Montenegro's language has historically and traditionally been called Serbian. The idea of a Montenegrin standard language separate from Serbian appeared in the 1990s during the breakup of Yugoslavia, through proponents of Montenegrin independence. Montenegrin became the official language of Montenegro with the ratification of a new constitution on 22 October 2007. Cyrillic and Latin alphabet are used in the Montenegrin language.
Macedonian language (македонски / makedonski), South Slavic language that is most closely related to Bulgarian and is written in the Cyrillic alphabet. Macedonian is the official language of the Republic of Macedonia.
There are three main dialect groups: the northern dialects, similar to the neighboring Serbian dialects, the eastern dialects, similar to and gradually shading into Bulgarian, and the western dialects, most distinct from Bulgarian and Serbo-Croatian and therefore chosen by the Yugoslav authorities in 1944 as the basis for the standard language.
Slovenian (slovenski jezik / slovenščina) belongs to the group of South Slavic languages.
Slovenian is significant differences in vocabulary, grammar and pronunciation to the standardized forms of Serbo-Croatian,
It is close to the Chakavian and especially Kajkavian dialects of Serbo-Croatian, but further from the Shtokavian dialect, the basis for the Bosnian, Croatian, Montenegrin, and Serbian standard languages.
Slovene shares certain linguistic characteristics with all South Slavic languages, also has many commonalities with the West Slavic languages.
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